The operating efficiency of the system is above 80% and the commercial business model is well proven.
PHES systems are generally located on sites with very high head and large reservoir sizes. There are very few suitable sites remaining for this type of PHES.
The Hydrobox can be used for low head PHES applications on any site where the upper and lower reservoirs have 4m -14m head difference.
Ideally, the PHES system would be between 2 adjacent lochs or between one loch and a man made reservoir. Alternatively, two reservoirs could be created on a flat field, with the spoil from the lower reservoir being used to create the retaining walls on the upper reservoir.
The technology could be applied on any extent of water such as lochs, rivers, canals or seawater.
The Hydrobox technology will allow PHES systems to be developed for low head applications. The market for low head PHES in the UK, and globally, is immense and is currently untapped.